- production function (production of wood, cellulose, cork, resin, distillate)
- protective function (anti-erosive action – retention of surface and ground waters, consolidator action, windbreaks, avalanches and landslides barrier action)
- recreational function (place of recreation – walking, hiking, hunting, mushroom gathering, observation of flora and fauna)
- environmental regulator and hygienic functions (production of oxygen, air and water purification, changes in air movements, local weather modification)
- natural function (source of biodiversity) consists of many different plant species, it gives shelter to many animal species – mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, complex ecosystem
The forest is a complex plant formation that develops from several meters below the ground surface (maximum depth reached by the roots) to the maximum height reached by the upper branches (in nature there are trees that can exceed 130 meters in height).
The forest is a unique naturalistic environment; trees and shrubs provide shelter to many species of animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects).
Trees produce abundant litter and they are, together with shrubs and other plants, a rich source of food for many vertebrates and invertebrates, fundamental elements for the presence of the higher fauna.
Forest types of Friuli Venezia Giulia
- Basal Horizon
Corresponding to the areas between the sea level and 200 meters above sea level.
series of Mediterranean evergreen forest and pine woods
series of lowland hornbeams and oaks.
- Hill Horizon
It identifies with the vegetation of the lower slopes but also the high Friuli plain taking into account that the Friuli Venezia Giulia region is quite affected by the proximity to the Adriatic Sea.
- series of downy oaks and ostria
- series of hilly hornbeams
- Mountain Horizon
The mountain horizon corresponds to a highly variable belt due to, above all, the extreme variability of the exposure of the slopes. Consequently, the lower limit fluctuates from 300 to 400 meters and the upper from 700 to 1000 meters above sea level.
- series of beech
- series of mixed beech and spruce woods
- series of mountain pines
- series of mountain spruce forests
- series of pines
- Sub- alpine Horizon
It is the horizon which concludes, in the south-eastern Alps, the forest vegetation. It extends from 1300-1400 meters up to 1600-1700 meters, where it gives way to the Alpine horizon, made of grasslands and rocks and screes’ vegetation.
- series of sub-alpine spruce forests
- series of larches
- variety of mountain pine and green alder woods
Concentration of ricing trunks. The limited wood-wood friction (improved by wetting the risina surface) enables the easy sliding of the trunk along the eave bed, set up with the same material. Currently are also used sheet metal or plastic small channels.
Trees are organisms capable of producing their own food by themselves using the water absorbed by the roots, the carbon dioxide absorbed by the leaves and the energy supplied by the sunlight.
The final result is the formation of carbohydrates (glucose) which are the basis for the production of starch, cellulose and lignin. Another product of these reactions is the oxygen which is released in the air from the leaves. This process is called photosynthesis. 90% of the weight of a tree is made up of only three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, confirming that most of the raw materials necessary for the growth of plants come from air and water. The remaining elements are present in small amounts but are essential for the formation of plant tissues: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron … are located in the soil dissolved in form of salts. They are absorbed by the roots and transported together with the water as raw sap to the leaves. The products of photosynthesis, which include in addition to glucose other molecules derived then from this, are conveyed in solution in phloem sap, which, through the bast, it will be distributed to all the cells of the plant. To live and grow the tree, like any other living being, must consume energy. This energy is produced by “burning” a part of organic substances produced in the photosynthesis. To do this the plant needs oxygen essential in each combustion. The plant absorbs from the atmosphere, through the leaves, the oxygen necessary for combustion of the carbohydrate and release outside the carbon dioxide. This process is called respiration and can be expressed by the following chemical reaction. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted by plants during respiration is approximately half of that absorbed during photosynthesis. Another product of the respiration of plants is the water that is lost, in the form of water vapor, from the leaves (vapor- transpiration). The water used during photosynthesis and that lost from the leaves for vapor-transpiration is continuously replaced by other water absorbed by the root system.
The tree absorbs from the ground water and mineral salts and carbon dioxide from the air. It produces so, starting from simple substances (inorganic), and with the aid of solar energy, more complex substances such as carbohydrates.
The tree absorbs the oxygen from the air, essential for the combustion of carbohydrates to produce the energy required for its growth.